Sican Archaeological Project
Languages: English Español 日本語
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The Sican Archaeological Project since its inception in 1978 has received research grants from the Heinz Family Foundation (1999), National Geographic Society (1981-83, 1985-86, 1989, 1999, 2001), National Science Foundation (1979-81, 1983-84, 1989) Shibusawa Ethnological Foundation (1990-97), Southern Illiniois University (2000), Tokyo Broadcasting System (2006-07), and Wenner-Gren Anthropological Foundation (2001-02). Our indebtedness for their generous support is hereby acknowledged.

Project Publications:

A. Books

Shimada, Izumi
1995. Cultura Sicán: Dios, Riqueza y Poder en la Costa Norte del Peru. Edu-Banco Continental, Lima. 219 pp.
Shimada, Izumi and Masahiro Ono
1994. Excavations at the Ancient Golden Capital, Sicán (in Japanese). Asahi Shinbun, Tokyo. 262 pp.

B. Articles in Peer-reviewed Professional Journals

Shimada, Izumi, Goldstein, David, Wagner, Ursel and Anikó Bezúr
2007. Pre-Hispanic Sicán Furnaces and Metalworking: Toward a Holistic Understanding. Boletín del Instituto Frances de Estudios Andinos, Lima. In press.
Shimada, Izumi, Ken-ichi Shinoda, Walter Alva, Steve Bourget, and Santiago Uceda
2006. Estudios Arqueogenéticos de las Poblaciones Prehispánicas Mochica y Sicán. Arqueología y Sociedad 17: 223-254.
Shimada, Izumi, Shinoda, Ken-ichi, Farnum, Julie, Corruccini, Robert S., and Hirokatsu Watanabe
Shimada, Izumi, Goldstein, D., Häusler, W., Sosa, J., and U. Wagner
2003. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru: Part II: Field Firing Experiments. In Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Archaeology, Volume II, edited by U. Wagner, pp. 91-105. Hyperfine Interactions 150 (1-4). Kluwer Publishing, New York.
Shimada, Izumi, Häusler, W., Hutzelmann, Th., Riederer, J., and U. Wagner
2003. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru: Part III: Mössbauer Study of Sicán Pottery. In Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Archaeology, Volume II, edited by U. Wagner, pp. 107-123. Hyperfine Interactions 150 (1-4). Kluwer Publishing, New York.
Shimada, Izumi, Häusler, W., Hutzelmann, Th., and U. Wagner
2003. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru: Part I: Mössbauer Study of Clay. In Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Archaeology, Volume II, edited by U. Wagner, pp. 73-89. Hyperfine Interactions 150 (1-4). Kluwer Publishing, New York.
Shimada, Izumi, Montenegro, J. A., Häusler, W., Jakob, M., Riederer, J., and U. Wagner
2003. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru: Part IV: Mössbauer Study of Pottery from Huaca Sialupe. In Mössbauer Spectroscopy in Archaeology, Volume II, edited by U. Wagner, pp. 125-139. Hyperfine Interactions 150 (1-4). Kluwer Publishing, New York.
Shimada, Izumi
2002. Unraveling the Sicán Culture of the Ancient Andes: The Nature of Its Elite and Religion (in Japanese). The Otani Gakuho (The Journal of Buddhist Studies and Humanities) 81(3): 49-73. Kyoto.
Corruccini, Robert S., Shimada, Izumi, and Ken-ichi Shinoda
2002. Dental and mtDNA Relatedness Among Thousand Year Old Remains from Huaca Loro, Peru. Dental Anthropology 16(1): 9-14.
Corruccini, Robert S., and Izumi Shimada
2002. Dental Relatedness Corresponding to Mortuary Patterning of at Huaca Loro, Peru. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 117:113-121.
Shimada, Izumi, and Ursel Wagner
2001. Peruvian Black Pottery Production and Metal Working: A Middle Sicán Craft Workshop at Huaca Sialupe. Materials Research Society Bulletin 26(1); 25-30. Special issue, "Preserving Art through the Ages, edited by Pamela Vandiver. Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA.
Wagner, Ursel, Shimada, Izumi, Goldstein, David, and W. Häusler
2001. Sicán Kilns and Furnaces: Field Firings and Archaeometric Studies. Hyperfine Interaction C: 1-4.
Wagner, U., Gebhard, R, Häuser, W., Hutzelmann, T., Riederer, J., Shimada, I., Sosa, J., and F.E. Wagner
1999. Reducing Firing of an Early Pottery Making Kiln at Batán Grande, Peru: A Mössbauer Study. Hyperfine Interaction 122: 163-170.
Wagner, U., Gebhard, R., Murad, E., Grosse, G., Riederer, J., Shimada, I., and F. E. Wagner
1997. Formative Ceramics from the Andes and their Production: A Mössbauer Study. Hyperfine Interaction 110:165-176.
Shimada, Izumi
1996. Sicán Metallurgy and Its Cross-Craft Relationships. Boletín del Museo del Oro 41: 27-61. Bogotá. (became available in 1998).
Baraybar, José Pablo and Izumi Shimada
1993. A Possible Case of Metastatic Carcinoma in a Middle Sicán Burial from Batán Grande, Peru. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 3:129-135.
Shimada, Izumi and Jorge Montenegro
1993. El Poder y la Naturaleza de la Elite Sicán: Una Mirada a la Tumba de Huaca Loro, Batán Grande. Boletín de Lima XV, No. 90, pp. 67-96. Lima.
Shimada, Izumi and John F. Merkel
1993. A Sicán Tomb in Peru. Minerva 4(1): 18-25.
Shimada, Izumi
1992. Sicán Elite Tombs and their Broader Implications. Newsletter of the Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies, No. 18: 1-6. London.
Cleland, Kathryn M. and Izumi Shimada
1992. Sicán Bottles: Marking Time in the Peruvian Bronze Age. Andean Past 3: 193-235. Ithaca, New York.
Shimada, Izumi
1992. La Sépulture Inviolée d'un Riche Seigneur Sicán. In Les Dossiers d'Archeologie, Special Issue, " Le Pérou de l'Origine aux Incas", edited by Daniel Lévine (Hors-serie No. 2), pp. 46-57. Paris.
Shimada, I., Chang, Victor, and Carlos G. Elera
1990. Excavaciones en Hornos de Cerámica de la Epoca Formativa en Batán Grande, Costa Norte del Perú. Gaceta Arqueológica Andina 5(20):19-43.
Cavallaro, Raffael and Izumi Shimada
1988. Some Thoughts on Sicán Marked Adobes and Labor Organization. American Antiquity 53: 75-101.
Merkel, John F. and Izumi Shimada
1988. Arsenical Copper Smelting at Batán Grande, Peru. Newsletter of the Institute for Archaeo-Metallurgical Studies, No. 12: 4-7. London.
Shimada, Izumi
1987. Aspectos Tecnológicos y Productivos de la Metalurgia Sicán, Costa Norte del Perú. Gaceta Arqueológica Andina No. 13, pp. 15-21. Instituto Andino de Estudios Arqueológicos, Lima.
Craig, Alan K. and Izumi Shimada
1986. El Niño Flood Deposits of Batán Grande, Northern Peru. Geoarchaeology: An International Journal 1(1): 29-38.
Shimada, Izumi and Raffael Cavallaro
1986. Monumental Adobe Architecture of the Late Prehispanic Northern North Coast of Peru. Journal de la Société des Américanistes LXXI: 41-78. Paris.
Shimada, Izumi and Carlos G. Elera
1984. Batán Grande y la Complejidad Cultural Emergente en el Norte del Perú durante el Horizonte Medio: Datos y Modelos. Boletín del Museo Nacional 8 (1983): 41-47.
Epstein, Stephen M., and Izumi Shimada
1983. Metalurgia de Sicán: Una Reconstrucción de la Producción de la Aleación de Cobre en El Cerro de los Cementerios, Peru. Beiträge zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden archäologie 5 (1983): 379-430. KAVA, Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Bonn
Shimada, Izumi, Elera, Carlos G., and Melody Shimada
1982. Excavaciones Efectuadas en el Centro Ceremonial de Huaca Lucía-Chólope del Horizonte Temprano, Batán Grande, Costa Norte del Perú: 1979-1981. Arqueológicas 19: 109-210.
Shimada, Izumi, Epstein, Stephen M., and Alan K. Craig
1982. Batán Grande: A Prehistoric Metallurgical Center in Peru. Science 216: 952-959.
Shimada, Izumi
1981. The Batán Grande-La Leche Archaeological Project: The First Two Seasons. Journal of Field Archaeology 8: 405-446.

C. Chapters in Professional Books:

Shimada, Izumi
In press. Power and Prestige: Middle Sicán Elite Tombs of North Coastal Peru. In Discovery! Unearthing the New Treasures, edited by Brian Fagan. Thames and Hudson, London.
Goldstein, David J., and Izumi Shimada
In press. Feeding the Fire: Food, Metal, and Ceramic Production in the Middle Sicán Period (950-1050 C.E.). In From Subsistence to Social Strategies: Refining the Material Correlates of Household and Suprahousehold Levels of Food Preparation, edited by L. Klarich. University of Colorado Press, Boulder.
2007. Middle Sicán Multi-Craft Production: Resource Management and Labor Organization. In Craft Production in Complex Societies: Multi-Crafting, Sequential Production, and Producers, edited by Izumi Shimada, pp. 44-67. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Shimada, Izumi, and Ursel Wagner
2007. Craft Production on the Pre-Hispanic North Coast of Peru: A Holistic Approach and Its Results. In Archaeology as Anthropology: Theoretical and Methodological Approaches, edited by James Skibo, Michael Grave and Meriam Stark, pp. 163-197. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Shimada, Izumi
2006. Unraveling the Secrets of the Pre-Hispanic Royal Tombs of Sicán: Wealth, Power, Memory and Kinship. In Ancient Peru Unearthed: Golden Treasures of a Lost Civilization, edited by Joyce Hildebrand and Karen Buckley, pp. 80-114. The Nickle Arts Museum, University of Calgary, Calgary.
Elera, Carlos G., and Izumi Shimada
2006. The Sicán Museum: Guardian, Promoter, and Investigator of the Sicán Culture and the Muchik Identity. In Site Museums in Latin America, edited by Helaine Silverman, pp. 217-233. University of Florida Press, Gainesville.
Shimada, Izumi, Shinoda, Ken-ichi, Bourget, Steve, Alva, Walter, and Santiago Uceda
2005. MtDNA Analysis of Mochica and Sicán Populations of Pre-Hispanic Peru. In Biomolecular Archaeology Genetic Approaches to the Past, edited by David Reed, pp. 61-92. Occasional Paper No. 32. Center for Archaeological Investigations, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.
Shimada, Izumi
2001. Sicán Culture. In Gold Crown and Feather Mantle: The Incas and Their Predecessors. Three Millennia of Pre-Columbian Peru, edited by Anneli Ilmonen and Jyrki K. Talvitie, pp. 175-180. Tampere Art Museum, Tampere, Finland.
2000. Late Prehispanic Coastal States. In The Inca World: The Development of Pre-Columbian Peru, A.D. 1000-1534, edited by Laura Laurencich Minelli, pp. 49-110. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Shimada, Izumi, Gordus, Adon, and Jo Ann Griffin
2000. Technology, Iconography, and Significance of Metals: A Multi-Dimensional Analysis of Middle Sicán Objects. In Pre-Columbian Gold: Technology, Iconography, and Style, edited by Colin McEwan, pp. 28-61. The British Museum Press, London.
Shimada, Izumi
1999. The Rise and Fall of Prehispanic Cultures on the Northern Coast of Peru: Understanding the Moche-Sicán Relationship (in Japanese). In The Moche Culture and the Royal Tombs of Sipán, edited by Masahiro Ono, pp. 179-183. Tokyo Broadcasting System, Tokyo.
Shimada, Izumi, Gordus, Adon, Griffin, Jo Ann, and John Merkel
1999. Sicán Alloying, Working and Use of Precious Metals: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, in Metal in Antiquity, edited by S. M. M. Young, A. M. Pollard, P. Budd, and R. A. Ixer. pp. 301-309. BAR International Series 792, Archaeopress, Oxford.
Montenegro, Jorge, and Izumi Shimada
1998. El "Estilo Cajamarca Costeño” y la Interacción Sicán-Cajamarca en el Norte del Perú. In Intercambio y Comercio entre Costa, Andes y Selva: Arqueología y Etnohistoria de Suramérica, edited by Felipe Cárdenas-Arroyo and T. L. Bray, pp. 255-296. Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá.
Shimada, Izumi, Chang, Victor, Killick, David, Neff, Hector, Glascock, Michael, and Wagner, Ursel, and Rupert Gebhard
1998. Formative Ceramic Kilns and Production in Batán Grande, North Coast of Peru. In Andean Ceramics: Technology, Organization and Approaches, edited by I. Shimada, pp. 23-61. MASCA, The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Cleland, Kate M. and Izumi Shimada
1998. Paleteada Pottery: Technology, Chronology and Sub-Culture. In Andean Ceramics: Technology, Organization and Approaches, edited by I. Shimada, pp. 111-150. MASCA, The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Shimada, Izumi
1997. Organizational Significance of Marked Adobe Bricks and Associated Construction Features on the North Peruvian Coast. In Architecture and Civilization in the Prehispanic Andes, edited by Elisabeth Bonnier and Henning Bischof, pp. 62-89. Archaeologica Peruana II, Völkerkundliche Sammlungen der Stadt Mannheim im Reiss-Museum, Mannheim, Germany.
1997. The Variability and Evolution of Prehispanic Kilns on the Peruvian Coast. In Prehistory and History of Ceramic Kilns, edited by Prudence Rice, pp. 103-127. Ceramics and Civilization series, American Ceramic Society, Columbus, Ohio.
1997. Das Grab von Huaca Loro und die Sicán-Kultur. In Sicán - ein Fürstengrab in Alt-Peru: eine Ausstellung in Zusammenarbeit mit dem peruanischen Kulturministerium, edited by Judith Rickenbach, pp. 33-79. Museum Rietberg Zürich.
1997. Spondylus - Muscheln in der Welt der Sicán-Kultur und im andinen Raum. In Sicán - ein Fürstengrab in Alt-Peru: eine Ausstellung in Zusammenarbeit mit dem peruanischen Kulturministerium, edited by Judith Rickenbach, pp. 87-88. Museum Rietberg Zürich.
1997. Die Geschichte der Naipes. In Sicán - ein Fürstengrab in Alt-Peru: eine Ausstellung in Zusammenarbeit mit dem peruanischen Kulturministerium, edited by Judith Rickenbach, pp. 89-90. Museum Rietberg Zürich.
1997. Das Grab von Huaca Las Ventanas. In Sicán - ein Fürstengrab in Alt-Peru: eine Ausstellung in Zusammenarbeit mit dem peruanischen Kulturministerium, edited by Judith Rickenbach, pp. 113-117. Museum Rietberg Zürich.
Shimada, I., Anderson, K. B., Haas, H., and J. H. Langenheim
1997. Amber from 1000-year Old Prehispanic Tombs in Northern Peru. In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology V, compiled by P. B. Vandiver, J. R. Druzik, J. F. Merkel, and John Stewart, pp. 3-18. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings Vol. 462. Pittsburgh.
Shimada, Izumi and John F. Merkel
1997. Technologie und Produktion von Arsenbronze zur Zeit der Sicán-Kultur. In Sicán - ein Fürstengrab in Alt-Peru: eine Ausstellung in Zusammenarbeit mit dem peruanischen Kulturministerium, edited by Judith Rickenbach, pp. 81-85. Museum Rietberg Zürich.
Griffin, Jo Ann and Izumi Shimada
1997. Die Goldbearbeitung im vorspanischen Amerika. In Sicán - ein Fürstengrab in Alt-Peru: eine Ausstellung in Zusammenarbeit mit dem peruanischen Kulturministerium, edited by Judith Rickenbach, pp. 91-101. Museum Rietberg Zürich.
Shimada, Izumi
1996. Batán Grande. In Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture,Vol. 1, edited by Barbara A. Tenenbaum, p. 307. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
1996. Sicán. In Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, Vol. 5, edited by Barbara A. Tenenbaum, pp. 105-106. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
Gordus, Adon A., Henderson, Carl E., and Izumi Shimada
1996. Electron Microprobe and Neutron Activation Analysis of Gold Artifacts from a 1000 A.D. Peruvian Grave Site. In Archaeological Chemistry: Organic, Inorganic, and Biochemical Analysis, edited by Mary V. Orna, pp. 83-93. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 625. Washington, D.C.
Gordus, Adon and Izumi Shimada
1995. Neutron Activation Analysis of Microgram Samples from 364 Gold Objects from a Sicán Burial Site in Peru. In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology IV, compiled by P. B. Vandiver, J. R. Druzik, and J. L. Galvan , pp. 127-142. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 352.
Merkel, J. F., Seruya, A. I., Griffiths, Dafydd, and Izumi Shimada
1995. Metallographic and Microanalysis of Precious Metal Objects from the Sicán Period at Batán Grande, Peru. In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology IV, compiled by P. B. Vandiver, J. R. Druzik, and J. L. Galvan , pp. 105-126. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, Vol. 352.
Shimada, Izumi
1994. Prehispanic Metallurgy and Mining in the Andes: Recent Advances and Future Tasks. In In Quest of Mineral Wealth: Aboriginal and Colonial Mining and Metallurgy in Spanish America, edited by Alan K. Craig and Robert West, pp. 37-73. Geoscience and Man Vol. 53. Louisiana State University, Baton Louge.
1994. The Role of Metals in Middle Sicán Society. In The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Humankind,Vol. 4: New World and Pacific Civilizations, edited by Goran Burenhult, pp. 94-95. Weldon Owen Pty Limited, Sydney.
1994. The Huaca Loro Tomb and the Sicán Culture (in Japanese). In Sicán: Excavations at the Pre-Inca Golden Capital, edited by Masahiro Ono, pp. 26-68. Tokyo Broadcasting System, Tokyo.
1994. Sicán Bronze Technology and Production(in Japanese). In Sicán: Excavations at the Pre-Inca Golden Capital, edited by Masahiro Ono, pp. 142-144. Tokyo Broadcasting System, Tokyo.
1994. Spondylus Shell in the Sicán and Andean Worlds (in Japanese). In Sicán: Excavations at the Pre-Inca Golden Capital, edited by Masahiro Ono, pp. 146-147. Tokyo Broadcasting System, Tokyo.
1994. The Story of Naipes (in Japanese). In Sicán: Excavations at the Pre-Inca Golden Capital, edited by Masahiro Ono, pp. 148-149. Tokyo Broadcasting System, Tokyo.
1994. The Huaca Las Ventanas Tomb (in Japanese). In Sicán: Excavations at the Pre-Inca Golden Capital, edited by Masahiro Ono, pp. 170-173. Tokyo Broadcasting System, Tokyo.
Shimada, Izumi, Chang, Victor, Elera, Carlos G., Neff, Hector, Glascock, Michael, Wagner, Ursel, and Rupert Gebhard
1994. Los Hornos y la Producción de Cerámica Formativa en Batán Grande, Costa Norte del Perú. In La Tecnología y la Organización de Producción de las Cerámicas en los Andes Prehispánicos, edited by Izumi Shimada, pp. 67-119. Fondo Editorial, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Cleland, Kate M. and Izumi Shimada
1994. Cerámica Paleteada: Tecnología, Modos de Producción y Aspectos Sociales. In La Tecnología y la Organización de Producción de las Cerámicas en los Andes Prehispánicos, edited by Izumi Shimada, pp. 321-348. Fondo Editorial, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima.
Griffin, Jo Ann and Izumi Shimada
1994. Goldworking in Prehispanic Americas (in Japanese). In Sicán: Excavation at the Pre-Inca Golden Capital, edited by Masahiro, pp. 122-130. Catalog for the exhibit of the same title at the National Science Museum, Tokyo. Tokyo Broadcasting System, Tokyo.
Merkel, John, Shimada, Izumi, Swann, C. P., and R. Doonan
1994. Pre-Hispanic Copper Alloy Production at Batán Grande, Peru: Interpretation of the Analytical Data for Ore Samples. In Archaeometry of Pre-Columbian Sites and Artifacts, edited by D. A. Scott and P. Meyers, pp. 199-227. The Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey, CA.
Wagner, U., Gebhard, R., Murad, E., Riederer, J., Shimada, I., and F.E. Wagner
1994. Kiln Firing at Batán Grande: Today and in Formative Times. In Archaeometry of Pre-Columbian Sites and Artifacts, edited by D. A. Scott and P. Meyers, pp. 67-84. The Getty Conservation Institute, Marina del Rey, CA.
Shimada, Izumi
1992. Stati nella Costa Nord e Sud (in Italian). In I Regni Preincaici e Il Mondo Inca (Pre-Inca Regional States and Inca Empire, edited by Laura Laurencich-Minelli, 49-64, 97- 110. Corpus Precolombiano Series, JACA Book, Milan, Italy.
Shimada, Izumi
1990. Cultural Continuities and Discontinuities on the Northern North Coast, Middle-Late Horizons. In The Northern Dynasties: Kingship and Statecraft in Chimor, edited by Michael E. Moseley and A. Cordy-Collins, pp. 297-392. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.
1987. Horizontal and Vertical Dimensions of Prehistoric States in North Peru. In The Origin and Development of the Andean State, edited by J. Haas, T. and S. Pozorski, pp. 130-144. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
1986. Batán Grande and Cosmological Unity in the Andes. In Andean Archaeology: Papers in Memory of Clifford Evans, edited by Ramiro Matos, Solveig Turpin and Herbert H. Eling, pp. 163-188. Institute of Archaeology, UCLA.
1985. Perception, Procurement and Management of Resources: Archaeological Perspective. In Andean Ecology and Civilization, edited by Shozo Masuda, I. Shimada and Craig Morris, pp. 357-399. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.
1985. La Cultura Sicán: Caracterización Arqueológica. In Presencia Histórica de Lambayeque, edited by Eric Mendoza S., pp. 76-133. Editorial e Imprenta DESA S.A., Lima.
Carcedo, Paloma and Izumi Shimada
1985. Behind the Golden Mask: Sicán Gold Artifacts from Batán Grande, Peru. In Art of Pre-Columbian Gold: Jan Mitchell Collection, edited by Julie Jones, pp. 60 -75. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London.
Shimada, Izumi
1982. Horizontal Archipelago and Coast-Highland Interaction in North Peru: Archaeological Models. In El Hombre y su Ambiente en los Andes Centrales, edited by Luis Millones and Hiroyasu Tomoeda, pp. 185-257. National Museum of Ethnology, Suita, Japan.

D. Popular and Creative Work (Non-Reviewed):

Shimada, Izumi, and Jo Ann Griffin
2005. Precious Metal Objects of the Middle Sicán. In “Mysteries of the Ancient Ones.” Special edition of Scientific American 15(1): 80-89. (expanded version of the 1994 article in Scientific American).
Shimada, Izumi and Jo Ann Griffin
1994. Precious Metal Objects of the Middle Sicán. Scientific American 270(4): 60-67.
Shimada, I. and John F. Merkel
1991. Copper Alloy Metallurgy in Ancient Peru. Scientific American 265(1): 80-86.
Shimada, Izumi, Epstein, Stephen M., and Alan K. Craig
1983. The Metallurgical Process in Ancient North Peru. Archaeology 36(5): 38-45.
Shimada, Izumi
1981. Temples of Time: The Ancient Burial and Religious Center of Batán Grande, Peru. Archaeology 34(5): 37-45.